JUser: :_load: Unable to load user with ID: 31566
Monday, 24 July 2006 08:48

Customized Peel Protocols

Written by  

As we are all aware, the skin care business is booming! The portion of the skin care market that is especially hot is skin repair and rejuvenation. The baby boomers are aging and shelling out billions of dollars a year for services and products that help them restore, repair, and rejuvenate themselves to a more youthful appearance. Skin care is the fastest growing segment within the category of cosmetics today. People aged 50+ represent over one third of our population, Healing Arts Guide – MJL Associates.

Specialized Skin Treatments
As a primary service of repair, skin peels or chemical peels are a leading source of revenue for salons/spas that understand how to customize for optimum results. As the term "peels" can be a little scary to the consumer, many salons/spas are changing their menus to call them rejuvenation or repair treatments to soften the perception. Different peel products are specifically made for specific skin issues. In order to choose what peels suits what skin type you need to first determine what you are treating. Know your objectives.

The most common objectives in ANY Skin Treatment is one or more of the following:

  • Elimination of damage and dysfunction (hyperpigmentation)
  • Stimulation of protein - cell division - migration (anti-aging)
  • Correct challenges and increase functionality (acne - rosacea)
  • Increase cell nutrition - replace nutrients (maintenance/enhancement)
  • Protection - for anti-aging control (keep skin hydrated to prevent lines/wrinkles)

All of these objectives can be met using different levels of peeling modalities.

Overview of Peels
The aesthetician's peel product exfoliates the top layers of the epidermis. Because this peel product works with the stratum corneum, (depth depends on strength and pH) to achieve desired results the aesthetician must use this treatment in a series of six to eight treatments once a week. The physician may use a deeper level peel and achieve the same result after one or two treatments. Different kinds of peel products available to the aesthetician are as follows:

(in order of depth)

  1. Salicylic Acid (Beta Hydroxy acid) - breaks up keratinized cells ie; takes the lid off the stratum corneum. This is an oil-loving (alipidic) product good for treating acne to digest the outside stratum corneum and allow deep cleansing of the follicles as well as disinfect the infection sites.
  2. Lactic Acid - (Alpha Hydroxy Acid) - made from milk products has a larger molecular structure, therefore more controlled for dryer/sensitive skin types, and more hydrating.
  3. Glycolic Acid - (Alpha Hydroxy Acid) - smaller molecular structure - dissolves intercellular cement that hold cells together in the epidermis. This is more wound inducing and "seeps" slightly farther down into the epidermis. Good for aged, or normal to dry skin that needs rejuvenation, as it will stimulate more collagen in response to the wound.
  4. AHA Blend - A combination of Lactic acid, and Glycolic acid, lactic acid slows down Glycolic acid for more control. Good for normal to dry skin with a question on skin sensitivity Alpha/Beta Blend – A combination of Salicylic and Glycolic, Salicylic digests top layers of stratum corneum, which allows for Glycolic to penetrate further into the Stratum Corneum producing a deeper wound, resulting in deeper cell regeneration.
  5. Jessners - A peel created by Dr. Jessners combines several different acids.

The usual Jessners blend is 14 percent salicylic acid, 14 percent lactic acid and 14 percent resorcinol.

The most caustic and wound inducing acid is the resorcinol. Resorcinol is used by physicians for papillary dermis, or upper reticular dermis peels. Also available is a more modified version of 11 percent of each, and a blended Jessners without Resorcinol. This makes it a more mild peel, but still stronger than AHA or a Salicylic. Jessners is one of the only peels that is left on the skin. Client does not wash skin for 48 hours. By then skin starts to peel. They should not pick it off.. This is the natural peeling process of the skin and it needs to naturally peel off. After about 1 week, they may get a very mild enzyme exfoliation to take dead skin off. Depending on strength of the peel, you apply up to eight to nine layers or until the skin "frosts" whichever comes first.This is a very good peel for aging skin, light acne scarred skin, and hyperpigmentation.
The risks of peels are that the darker pigmented the persons skin is to begin with, such as a Skin Type III and above, the higher the risk that the deeper the peel, will result in more hyperpigmentation. One of the ways the skin responds to trauma is to produce melanin. The chart below identifies Skin Types as outlined in the Fitzpatrick Skin Types Model.


Skin Type Working Classification Physical Characteristics

I Always burns, never tans, sun sensitive Red-haired, freckles

  • Celtic, Irish-Scots

II Burns easily, tans minimally

  • Fair skinned, fair-haired
  • Blue-eyed, Caucasian

III Sometimes burns, tans gradually

  • Average skin

IV Burns minimally, tans to moderate brown

  • Mediterranean-type
  • Caucasian

V Rarely Burns, tans well

  • Middle Eastern
  • some Hispanic
  • and Blacks

VI Never burns,

  • deeply pigmented
  • Blacks

In Medical Peels where the solution is stronger and more aggressive, a physician will put a patient they feel is a slight risk such as Skin Type III on a prophylactic hydroquinone treatment for two to three weeks prior to the peel.
The aesthetician, usually, depending on the state license is not allowed to use peeling modalities that cause wounding to the skin any lower than mid-epidermis. Aestheticians must use more superficial types of peels in conjunction with longer term topical treatments.
AHA's (Alpha Hydroxy Acids) are the most commonly used superficial peeling agents used by aestheticians. The word superficial is used to describe the peel depth as opposed to a physician strength peel. The following chart breaks down the difference in language between the aesthetician and physician:

Aesthetics model Physicians model

Superficial= Stratum corneum Superficial = Basal layer
Epidermal= Dermal junction
Medium= Stratum Granulosum Mid-Papillary dermis
Deep= Basal layer Mid-Reticular dermis

Variables that effect Peel depth
One of the most important variables in choosing a peel is pH, which stands for Potential of Hydrogen. Simply put, as hydrogen is very reactive, the lower the number on the pH chart, the more hydrogen ions. The higher the number on the pH scale, the fewer the number of hydrogen ions. The more hydrogen ions present the more reactive the substance such as in the case of acids. Acids on the pH chart run from 0-6.9. Seven on the pH chart is neutral. The water and oil of the barrier of the skin measures 4.5- 6.5. Therefore, to get the skin to react, we need to drop to a lower level than the skins natural pH of 4.5. Most aesthetic pH solutions are around 3.0 on the pH chart. To drop just one number however, is still a large jump in intensity of hydrogen ions. Each number on the pH chart is multiplied by the 10th power. Remember this concept from high school math? So, when you start at neutral seven you would say six is 10 times greater in acidity than seven, five is 100 times greater in acidity than seven, four is 1000 times greater in acidity than seven, three is 10, 000 times greater in acidity than seven and so on. Therefore, if you are using a peel with a pH of two, you are using a product that is 100,000 times greater in acidity than neutral seven. The difference between two and three on the pH chart is approximately 10,000 times. Therefore, you need to know the pH of your product. The following are the components to look for in deciding how to use the acid of choice:

Type of peeling agent (active solution)

  1. Concentration of acid used – 30 percent salon - 60-70 percent physician strength
  2. pH of the acid
  3. Time peeling agent remains on the skin
  4. Condition of the epidermis prior to application of peeling agents including, prior acid usage, thickness of the skin and lipids of the skin

Protection and Follow-up
After any peel, it is MANDATORY that a sunscreen with an SPF of 30 be used to protect the skin from even very minor UV Radiation. Remember, the skin has been burned and wounded and ANY UVR can cause additional wounding and unexpected hyperpigmentation. It is also important to understand how often to perform these peels. It is recommended to allow the skin to fully heal before creating another series of wounds in the skin to cause regeneration. Therefore, it is recommended to allow an additional six to eight weeks healing time AFTER the completion of the six to eight weeks of peels. So many people think, if a little is good, a lot is better, WRONG! If you keep re-wounding the skin before it can properly heal, you are actually creating more damage for the skin. It needs to heal and regenerate, which is the purpose of the peel.

Proper home care is also essential for maintenance of peels.
Once you understand how peels are used for what skin type, and how to choose the right peel product for your client's skin, you will be on your way to building a clientele that is loyal, committed to proper home care, and ready and willing to spend money on their skin.

Patricia Heitz, CIDESCO DIPLOMATE, has been in the beauty industry since 1975, as a Cosmetologist and Esthetician. She has worked as a manufacturers representative and trainer for Skin and Hair product manufacturers, and more recently as an Esthetics School Director and Instructor. Having earned the prestigious title of CIDESCO Diplomate, is also an educator and contributing author for Milady/ Thomson Learning with both the Standard Text and Comprehensive Text for Estheticians. Currently, she owns Patricia Heitz Consulting, -Dermatech Academy offering online and onsite Skin Technology Training and Consulting for Schools, Spas, and Distributors, and is an exclusive Industry consultant to Gerson/Lehrman Financial Analysts Council of Advisors in New York. She can be reached at (518) 261-1236 or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Want to read more?

Subscribe to one of our monthly plans to continue reading this article.

Related items

  • Successful Upselling Foreward Successful Upselling Foreward

    Upselling and add-ons – a challenging subject to talk about even in the best of times. But here we are in the middle of an economic crisis, so you must be asking yourself how we could possibly consider this a reasonable topic when you are just happy you are able to sustain your clientele. Many of you are probably thinking there is no way you would jeopardize that relationship by asking the client to spend more money. All of which are perfectly reasonable thoughts and questions. However, I will ask you to put them in a box briefly, clear your mind, and be open to consideration for just a moment.

    Let me give you an example of an effective suggestion that happens millions of times, everyday, all around the world. You go to your favorite restaurant; you sit down, and look over the menu. Your server comes to the table and takes your order, you tell him what you would like and he confirms your order then says, “Would you like a salad with that tonight, or can I interest you in a glass of wine?” A perfectly harmless question, that was neither painful nor offensive. At worst you say “No, thank you.” At best, he just enhanced your dining experience, increased your bill, and ultimately his tip. Job well done!

  • Creating the Ideal Retail Mix - December 2008 Creating the Ideal Retail Mix - December 2008
    by Melinda Minton

    Selling retail is an essential part of a well run spa. This is true not only because the additional revenue is so crucial to a spa's bottom line, but also because prescriptive home care is the necessary second step to the professional care given to a client in the spa. While mastering the retail sale can be difficult from a team or individual perspective, there are methods for making your spa’s retail routine hum.



    Your Spa's Style

    Oftentimes spas try to sell a bit of everything in an attempt to accommodate everyone. This can be a fatal error. The more fragmented your retail mix the more clients and staff will be confused. There must be a driving force behind your spa philosophy. Are you primarily a spa focused in on medical skin care, contouring services, water therapies, or all organic non-ablative therapies? Before you can determine the best retail mix for your spa, you really need to dig deep and understand your theme, focus, and primary therapeutic offerings. Moreover, remember that if you can’t get the product on them in the treatment room—there is a much smaller chance that the client will be taking the product home with them for further use when not at the spa. Integrating the treatment experience with the retail experience is crucial. When determining your retail mix, be cognizant of your client. Do you primarily offer clinical services or is your treatment mix somewhat more “fluffy” or gift-oriented?

  • Deal or No Deal Deal or No Deal

    When Sarah Hughes skated off with the gold medal, she pulled off one of the biggest upsets in Olympic history. Her surprisingly simple secret? “I didn’t skate for a gold medal. I went out and had a great time.”

    Athletes say it all the time: “I just went out there and had fun.” And, admittedly, they do look like they’re having a great time.

    Fortunately, fun isn’t the sole province of superstar athletes. It can work for the rest of us in the skin care industry, too. The link between having fun and business success has been proven in countless studies. When we’re having fun on the job, we are more creative and more productive.


  • Sugar... Not Just for Coffee Anymore Sugar... Not Just for Coffee Anymore

    by Lina Kennedy

    A couple of decades ago, offering cream and sugar for anything other than coffee or tea would have sounded quite ridiculous! But in today’s realm of aesthetics and cosmetics promoting coffee and chocolate to soothe even the jitteriest skin, or offering sugar as a real hair removal solution to an age-old problem is very realistic. And as post treatment, applying a good trans-dermal cream to hydrate and moisturize the skin is simply a great, soothing and natural way to complete your sugaring service.

  • Jan Marini - August 2010: A Legend in Aesthetics
    Jan Marini - August 2010: A Legend in Aesthetics
    Jan Marinin


    Those who know Jan Marini refer to her as a visionary. While Jan might agree in principle, she sees this characterization as both a strength and a weakness. She envies those who are able to savor the moment. Where others view life in snapshots that capture real time, Jan sees broad borderless landscapes and endless possibilities. She does not see a product, she sees a business and in that same instance her mind is flooded with the business plan and all the accompanying details. Even when she is not envisioning empires, she is never satisfied with the status quo.
    Given her background, perhaps this is an understandable if not necessary survival tool. Jan’s mother, Florence, was a single mom of three boys in an era when divorce carried a major stigma. Florence remarried and unexpectedly gave birth to Jan late in life. The family struggled to live a very meager existence. Her father died when she was eight years old and the family was thrust into poverty. Florence worked only menial jobs and food was often scarce. It was no wonder that Jan viewed her world not as it was, but as it might be, and that she softened the bleak reality by envisioning a larger and more optimistic scenario brimming with potential. Because of her early circumstances, Jan is adamant that in order to succeed you must be tenacious, doggedly determined, and completely focused on the ultimate goal.
    Jan describes herself as a product researcher. “Back in the early days I was considered a product ingredient expert. I lectured to medical professionals, skin care professionals, and consumers about how ingredients really performed and what they could realistically expect to provide.” She also did talk radio and T.V., because as she puts it, “consumers love to hear about ingredients and whether their products really work. It is a popular topic that lends itself to talk shows.”
Login to post comments

February 2024

Body Care Blogs

Brands of the Month

  • Face Reality Skincare
  • Celluma by Biophotas, Inc
  • DMK Skin Revision Center


body { overflow-y: auto; } html, body { min-width: unset; }