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Problem:  Wrinkles

As clients age, it is no secret that they become more susceptible to wrinkles. Some wrinkles become deep crevices that can be noticeable around the eyes, mouth, and neck. There are two main types of wrinkles: surface lines and deep furrows. Surface lines are fine lines on the surface of the skin while deep furrows are deep creases. While surface lines can be effectively treated by skin care professionals, deep furrows are more difficult to get rid of.

Acne Scarring

Acne scarring is the result of inflamed lesions and blemishes. When body tissues get damaged, white blood cells and other infection-fighting molecules go to the site of injury and try to fight it. However, when they fight off the infection, the tissue does not always bounce back to normal. Instead, scars are most often left behind.

Stretch Marks

Problem: Stretch Marks

Striae distensae, or stretch marks, are marks that appear as parallel lines on the skin. The color of these lines ranges from purple to light pink to light gray. They form due to over-stretching of the skin and mostly occur on the thighs, abdomen, groin, chest, and armpits. Stretch marks usually create a slight ridge or indention on the skin.

Dry Lips

Problem: Dry Lips

Dry lips, also known as chapped or cracked lips, are a very common disorder that occurs occasionally for most people. The skin on our lips is more vulnerable to the elements than the rest of the skin on our bodies. Indeed, our skin is made up of three layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and a subcutaneous fat layer with the stratum corneum topping the epidermis as a protective layer against bacteria, moisture loss, heat, and light.

Spider Veins

Problem: Spider Veins

Telangiectasias, or spider veins, are tiny, web-like veins that form typically on areas of the body, such as the legs or face. Similar to varicose veins, spider veins appear as red, blue or purple branches that form close to the surface of the skin. They form due to a lack of blood circulation in addition to a variety of reasons that include environmental factors, such as sun exposure, hormonal changes, aging and more.


Problem: Hirsutism

Hirsutism is a condition in which women have excessive and unwanted male-pattern hair growth. It is a common disorder that affects approximately eight percent of women.1 Women who suffer from hirsutism may experience extreme hair growth on various areas of the body including the face, neck, chest and abdominal region. Studies have shown that of women with apparent hirsutism typically 10 percent present hair on the chest, 22 percent present with hair on their chin, and 49 percent present with hair on the upper lip.


Problem: Rosacea

Rosacea is a chronic skin disorder that primarily effects facial skin. Those afflicted with rosacea are often plagued by persistent symmetrical flushing and redness on their cheeks, forehead, chin, and nose. The redness may be accompanied by small, red, solid bumps or pimples and visible blood vessels at the surface of the skin called telangiectasias or spider veins. Other symptoms may include eye irritation, facial burning or stinging, very dry appearance to the skin, raised red patches of skin, skin thickening known as hyperplasia, and edema. Rosacea can manifest in a variety of ways.

Age Spots

Problem: Age Spots

Age spots, also known as liver spots, senile lentigines, solar lentigines, or sun spots, are flat gray, brown or black spots on the skin. Despite their name, these spots do not come from age. This common condition is caused by overproduction of melanin in the skin. As the result of skin aging, sun exposure, or the use of tanning beds, the melanin becomes concentrated in the epidermis and presents as age spots. Age spots vary in size and are most commonly found on the areas that get the most sun exposure over the years. Typically, these areas include the face, hands, shoulders, and arms. The spots can appear as a single mark or in a cluster and can seem to appear suddenly.

Chronic Dry Hands

Problem: Chronic Dry Hands

There are many factors that contribute to chronic dry hands. Dryness can occur due to environmental climates such as location, seasonality, humidity levels, and so on. For example, during the winter season, the hands may begin to experience dryness, peeling or even bleeding as a result of freezing temperatures and/or cold, rapid winds. In warmer weather, sun exposure, due to ultraviolet radiation, may also contribute to drying out hands in addition to the rest of skin on the body.


Problem: Elastosis

Skin elasticity is what determines the skin’s ability to stretch and then return to its normal state. A loss of elasticity (tone and firmness) in the skin, known as elastosis, is a natural part of the aging process for most people. This sagging skin is defined significantly by the condition of the underlying muscles.
The connective tissues in the skin that provide flexibility and firmness are collagen and elastin. Collagen is a fibrous protein that is responsible for the firmness in skin, while elastin is a protein that gives skin elasticity. Elastin helps skin to return to its natural position after being pulled or pinched. Collagen does have elastic properties, however it is elastin that provides the skin with what it needs to stretch and be flexible.

Men with Melasma

Problem: Men with Melasma

Melasma is a skin condition where patches of the skin darken and appear brown. The condition is not an infection of any kind and is not cancerous. Melasma is not considered transmissible or contagious and it does not appear due to any certain allergy. It is a form of hyperpigmentation and most frequently shows on the face, specifically the forehead, bridge of the nose, upper lip, cheeks and chin – but can also be seen on the forearm and neck. Interestingly, melasma patches are commonly symmetrical in appearance and can be confluent or punctate in shape. According to the American Academy of Dermatology, it is more commonly seen on women, though it still affects approximately 10 percent of men. Melasma affects over five million Americans and generally appears on people with darker skin tones, such as Latinos or Hispanics, because they have more active melanocytes than those with lighter skin tones. North African, African-American, Asian, Indian, Middle Easter, and Mediterranean skins also have a higher chance of developing the skin condition.

Dark Under-Eye Circles

Problem: Dark Under-Eye Circles

Idiopathic cutaneous hyperchromia of the orbital region (ICHOR), periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH), periorbital melanosis, orbital hyperchromia and infraorbital pigmentation are all terms used in the medical field to describe the darkening of the skin beneath the eyes. More frequently, however, this condition is referred to informally as dark circles, but also by more descriptive idioms such as raccoon and/or panda eyes.
Preceded only by acne, under-eye circles are the second most common skin care complaint relayed to skin care professionals that are frequently seen in both men and women.1,2 From a clinical perspective, this condition can, for the most part, be separated into two individual types: primary and secondary.


Problem: Cellulite

Adiposis edematosa, dermopanniculosis deformans, gynoid lipodystrophy, and status protrusus cutis are all terms used in the medical field to describe the breach of subcutaneous fat within fibrous connective tissue that appears on the surface of the skin as dimpling and knot-like swelling. In informal, everyday terms, this skin condition is referred to as cellulite or by other more colorful colloquialisms such as hail damage, orange peel syndrome, mattress phenomenon, and cottage cheese skin.


Problem: Acne

According to Stedman’s® Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing, acne is an inflammatory disease of sebaceous follicles marked by papules and pustules. Acne typically begins during puberty; it can affect the chest, back and face, but sometimes other areas. Cause remains unknown. Predisposing factors include heredity and androgen-estrogen imbalance.

Keratosis pilaris

Keratosis Pilaris

Keratosis pilaris, also known as follicular keratosis, lichen pilaris or chicken skin, is a common skin condition that causes rough patches and small, acne-like bumps on the arms, thighs, cheeks and/or buttocks. Keratosis pilaris bumps are usually white or red and generally do not hurt or itch.1 Although no clear study of what causes this skin condition has been defined, keratosis pilaris is often associated with dry skin conditions such as ichthyosis vulgaris, xerosis and atopic dermatitis.2 As an autosomal dominant gene, keratosis pilaris is hereditary, taking a single gene from either parent to inherit less than smooth skin. However, it is difficult to pinpoint which parent is responsible due to only 30 to 50 percent of keratosis pilaris patients having a positive family history. Moreover, 50 percent of the entire population is affected by keratosis pilaris, affecting 50 to 80 percent of children and four out of every 10 adults.



A person’s natural complexion is determined by the melanin present in their body and is referred to as pigmentation. When there is a change in the appearance of the skin, whether from an increase or a decrease in the amount of pigmentation present, it is apparent that something is causing the body distress.
Hyperpigmentation is the overproduction of melanin which results in the appearance of dark colored patches on the skin. Certain health issues, and even outside stimuli, can exacerbate this skin condition, such as pregnancy, adrenal gland dysfunction, and adverse reactions to over-thecounter and prescription drugs. However, the most prevalent cause is the reaction to sunlight which not only brings on hyperpigmentation but can also result in the darkening of already affected areas of the skin.

Oily skin

Problem: Oily skin

Genetics, hormones, stress, environmental factors, overuse or incorrect use of skin care products, medications, and skin irritation can all cause the overproduction of sebum resulting in oily skin. Characterized by an overabundance of sebum production, pores tend to contain more oil and are larger in size. An oily skin type can be present if an individual displays large, visible pores over a majority of their face. This skin type is prone to blemishes due to the larger pores becoming clogged with oil and a buildup of dead skin cells – making exfoliation and cleansing an imperative part of their skin care routine. Whiteheads, blemishes, pustules and comedones are common for individuals with oily skin.

Problem: Lackluster skin

Many diverse factors experienced throughout a client’s life can result in lackluster, dull skin. The word lackluster can be defined as lacking in brilliance, radiance, sheen, or vitality: mediocre... dull. When applying this term to skin it refers to the actual texture of the skin. As skin cells flatten, they lose hydration resulting in the surface’s inability to reflect light which causes the surface to give off a lackluster, dull appearance. This condition can be caused by internal and external causes. Smoking, not exercising regularly, being subjected to excess pollutants, aging, or even genetics can all play a part in a person having dull skin.

Problem: Eczema

Eczema is a group of chronic skin conditions caused by the inflammation of the skin. In eczema cases, the skin is inflamed and experiences painful itching, in addition to dry or moist lesions being present. Skin affected by eczema generally manifests itself as rough, inflamed patches; blisters that itch and sometimes bleed are also present. Eczema can appear on any part of the body and it affects both males and females equally, as well as individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. This skin condition may present itself due to a reaction or irritation from an external force. However, it is important to note, that it does not typically have an obvious external cause. This condition should be referred to a physician.

Problem: Dehydration

Dehydration is a very common skin condition characterized by the lack of moisture in the stratum corneum. The quantity of water transmitted from the inside (dermal reserve) to the outside layers (epidermal) of the skin, is dependent on the level of internal hydration. Dehydration is a lack of water, not oil, meaning that sebaceous oil activity can still be normal or even overactive in dehydrated skin. Irritation, inflammation, itchiness and sensitivity; a feeling of tightness or tautness; might look or feel rough; slight to severe flaking and scaling; fine lines, severe redness and cracks that can sometimes bleed are all symptoms dehydrated skin experiences.


Problem: Sunburn
Sunburn is caused by UV radiation, either from the sun or from artificial sources. Minor sunburns typically cause nothing more than slight redness and tenderness to the affected areas. In more serious cases, blistering can occur. Extreme sunburns can be painful to the point of debilitation and may require hospital care.

Case Study: Monday morning, a college student walks in your spa asking for relief from her weekend on the lake. After showing you her sunburn on her back, shoulders and décolleté, she tells you she was only persistent on applying sunscreen to her face. You notice she is extremely dehydrated and her skin still radiates heat. She does not yet show signs of blisters.

As a skin care professional, what solution do you propose to treat this case study? 

Puffy Eyes



Puffy Eyes – refers to a certain appearance of the tissues around the eyes. This is a condition where the eyes begin swelling due to different factors. The skin around the eyes is very thin and is full of blood vessels which make it very sensitive. Minor puffiness is usually only detectable below the eyes.


Case Study:

A consistent client of yours schedules an appointment for a routine facial. While visiting she complains about unusual under eye puffiness. She explains that she gets an average amount of rest but has been waking up with puffy eyes for a few weeks. She is a mother of two and in her late 20s. She has a routine of cleansing, moisturizing, and applying makeup daily.

As a skin care professional, what solution do you propose to treat this case study?


Enlarged Pores – small microscopic, tube-like openings of the sebaceous glands on the surface of the skin that allow cooling perspiration and protective oils to reach the skin’s surface. The actual size of the pore is determined by the amount of sebum that is produced and discharged from the follicular canal; the more produced, the more the pore is stretched to accommodate the quantity of sebum being secreted. It is estimated that an individual has as many as one million pores per square inch of skin.