×

Warning

JUser: :_load: Unable to load user with ID: 31566

Cell Biochemistry: The Blueprint of Ingredient Science

With access to so much information, your client is increasingly placing their faith in real science to ward off the inevitable signs of aging. The uninformed aesthetician or skin care professional therefore needs to understand the importance of communicating hard science and not hard sell to their clients.

By understanding the science behind ingredient biochemistry, as a professional, you remove the guesswork in not only understanding what treatment is best for your client, but also removing an unknown from the equation of product validity and performance. Products that do not work from the template of skin structure and cell biology communicate science that is nonexistent or, at best, seriously flawed.

When reviewing marketing claims or new ingredients, general cell biology and biochemistry allows you to manage the scientific facts. What’s key to note is that cellular processes in skin cells haven’t just suddenly developed new talents. All of these processes in the cell have been going on for millions of years. The biochemistry of the cell should always be the benchmark for ingredient science.
So how should topical ingredients relate to the functioning of the cell?

Cellular and Intercellular Components
All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. The cell membrane keeps the components of the cell isolated from the external environment. It also serves as the communications interface between the cell and its environment. Biological membranes also compartmentalize cellular functions.
Cell membranes contain various types of lipids, the specific composition of which is important for maintaining membrane fluidity. These lipids have a charged, hydrophilic (water loving) portion of the molecule on the outside of the membrane and a lipophilic (lipid loving) portion sandwiched in between. Contained within cell membranes are also proteins and peptides vital to the cell.
Having ingredients imitate the structure of the biomembrane should be the backbone of every moisturizer or hydrator for your client. Intercellular substances are those ingredients that exist naturally in skin, and that work to hold skin cells together. An arid or dry environment, photoaging, irritation, inflammation, and general intrinsic aging can all greatly reduce the presence of these natural substances in skin. Ingredients such as ceramides, fatty acids (linoleic acid, triglycerides, glycerin, phospholipids, and lecithin), and glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronic acid) are essential for helping skin function normally. These ingredients can help keep cells and the substances between cells stay hydrated to maintain health longer, as well as improve the skin surface.
Ceramide and Fatty Acids have an important role in the barrier properties of the cell membrane and therefore the skin. Not only do they limit the loss of water, in addition, they prevent the ingress of harmful substances. Linoleic Acid, Squalane, and Shea lipids, for example, can protect against environmental degradation in addition to having anti-inflammatory and "cell renewal" properties.
Glycosaminoglycans or GAGs are a family of proteoglycans and are located in the intercellular matrix of the dermal connective tissue. The biological functions of proteoglycans include the regulation of cell growth, cell signaling, inflammation, and interactions with growth factors and their receptors. GAGs promote the ability of collagen fibers to retain water and bind moisture into the stratum corneum of the epidermis. The most important GAG in the skin is Hyaluronic Acid (HA). HA is able to bind up to 1000 times its weight in water and acts like a moisture magnet to maintain extra cellular fluidity. The skin contains over 70 percent water and renews it more readily than most other bodily tissues. HA is absolutely vital to its structure and daily maintenance.
Cells also have a set of 'little organs', called organelles that are adapted and/or specialized for carrying out one or more vital functions. The most notable is the cell nucleus, as it is the place where almost all DNA replication and RNA synthesis occur. The nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm, the fluid inside the cell, by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope isolates and protects a cell's DNA from various molecules that could accidentally damage its structure or interfere with its processing. During processing, DNA is transcribed, or copied into a special ‘messenger’ RNA, called mRNA. This mRNA is then transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm, where it is translated into a specific protein or peptide molecule.
Within the cytoplasm is another organelle, the mitochondria. Mitochondria have their own DNA and are self-replicating. They are the 'power plants' of the cells: They convert chemical energy stored as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids into Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) that the cell can use to maintain its structure and to grow and reproduce. This ‘power plant’ consumes approximately 85 percent of the oxygen, and because of this high oxygen use, the mitochondria unfortunately also have the highest production of harmful oxygen free radicals.
Any free radical involving oxygen is referred to as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). These free radicals contain two unpaired electrons in the outer shell. When free radicals steal an electron from a surrounding compound or molecule a new free radical is formed in its place. In turn the newly formed radical then looks to return to its ground state by stealing electrons from cellular structures or molecules. Thus, the destructive chain reaction begins. ROS damage cellular DNA, lipids, and protein. Cellular energy deficits caused by declines in mitochondrial function by ROS can also impair normal cellular activities and compromise the cell's ability to adapt to various physiological stresses, a major factor in aging. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial lipids also contributes to the decreasing fluidity of cell membranes. Other effects of ROS include a relatively high rate of mitochondrial DNA mutation.
Mitochondria do contain natural enzymes capable of protecting against the deleterious effects of ROS. These include Superoxide Dismutase, Co-enzyme Q10, and Lipoic Acid. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) is arguably the body’s most crucial antioxidant, as it is responsible for disarming the most dangerous free radicals of all: The highly reactive superoxide radicals.
Lipoic Acid is an antioxidant that has been shown to not only reverse the age-related decrease in oxygen consumption and restore the age-related decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, but also significantly lower the age and environmentally related increase in ROS oxygen radicals.
Co-enzyme Q10 or CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone, is a fat-soluble antioxidant that helps to protect the lipid membranes of the cell from free radical attack, as well as being essential in vitamin E regeneration.
These protective substances and mechanisms, however, do decrease with age. In addition, increased environmental stress, toxins, etc., generally limit our cells' ability to combat free radicals and eliminate oxidative stress. The additional topical application of these natural cell protectants, therefore, is essential for optimal cell activity.

Biochemical Cell Communication
All living cells sense and respond to their environment by a set of mechanisms known as cell signaling – part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. Specific chemicals mediate cell-to-cell communication in the skin between keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and other cell types present in the skin to enhance cellular activity. As a result, anti-aging and skin normalizing benefits can be achieved through many ‘cell signaling’ active ingredients.
Ceramides in the stratum corneum, primarily known for their ‘barrier’ role, main biological function is in cellular signaling, especially in how skin cells grow and differentiate – a process through which skin cells become specialized. Ceramide ingredients such as the botanical Ceramide 2 and Ceramide 3 can help communicate messages to these skin cells that let them know how they should be ‘acting’.
Melasma or Melanogenesis is another form of cell communication between keratinocytes and melanocytes. Melanin is synthesized in melanocytes, which are normally found in the epidermal basal layer. Melanocytes deposit melanin via cellular extensions called dendrites that reach out to other cells in the epidermis. Within the melanocytes, melanin is bound to a protein matrix to form melanosomes. In the melanosomes, tyrosinase is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of melanin. Tyrosinase inhibitor ingredients act upon the cell by inhibiting or ‘turning off’ the production of melanin by melanocytes. By blocking the various points of the pathways, natural skin brightening agents can inhibit or even reverse melanin biosynthesis and are thus useful in the treatment of hyperpigmentation or spots that are caused by local increase in melanin synthesis or uneven distribution. These include Licorice Extract (Glycyrrhiza Glabra), Bearberry Extract (Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi), Arbutin, Kojic Acid, Azaleic Acid, and Ellagic Acid.

Cell Stress and Inflammatory Responses
Stress is one of the major characteristics of our modern life, and much data has shown that stress has a direct effect on skin health and appearance. Remember, skin is the body's first line of defense against aggressions from the environment.
Free radicals (particularly from UV radiation) attack the structure of cell membranes, which then create metabolic waste products. Such toxic accumulations interfere with cell communication, disturb DNA, protein synthesis, lower energy levels, and generally impede vital cell biochemical processes. Free radicals can be transformed and stabilized, however, by free radical scavengers – otherwise known as antioxidants. The term antioxidant means "against oxidation." Antioxidants are effective because they are willing to give up their own electrons to free radicals. When a free radical gains the electron from an antioxidant, it no longer needs to attack the cell and the chain reaction of oxidation is broken. After donating an electron, an antioxidant becomes a free radical by definition. Antioxidants in this state are not harmful because they have the ability to accommodate the change in electrons without becoming reactive.
There are two lines of antioxidant defense within the cell. The first line, found in the fat-soluble cell membrane consists of vitamin E, ß -Carotene, and Co-enzyme Q10. Of these, vitamin E is considered the most potent chain breaking antioxidant within the membrane of the cell. Because it is lipid soluble, it is particularly suited for preventing lipid peroxidation, the destruction of the lipids in the cell membrane. By donating a hydrogen ion, vitamin E (Tocopherol) reduces the peroxyl radical to a harmless oxidized lipid breaking the steps that would otherwise initiate lipid peroxidation.
Cells also contain numerous nonenzymatic antioxidants including vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid), vitamin A, (ß-Carotene), and Glutathione (GSH). The natural antioxidant vitamin C does more than inhibit skin-damaging free radical activity. It is also required for collagen synthesis, which declines markedly in aging skin. As humans age, they suffer diminished microcapillary circulation within the skin, thereby depriving skin cells of the supply of vitamin C it needs for youthful collagen synthesis. The topical application of vitamin C in a skin-penetrating medium can enhance the availability of vitamin C for collagen production. Vitamin C regenerates vitamin E and enables vitamin E to provide sustained antioxidant protection in the skin's elastin fibers. Vitamin C also plays a vital role in skin repair. When skin is injured, its vitamin C content is used up rapidly in the scavenging of free radicals, and in synthesizing collagen to speed healing.
Of course, the first protection to the cell from the excess of environmental assaults is a broad UVA and UVB spectrum sunscreen against the generation of free radicals caused by sun exposure. This prevents a substantial amount of free radical damage before it can even start; but because free radicals come in a hierarchy (according to their potential for damage) with the hydroxyl-radical and superoxide-radical at the top of the list, your client needs a cross-section of antioxidants for the cascade effect in converting into lower damage free radicals, not a one-ingredient-fits-all approach. This includes the natural ingredients of vitamins A, C, and E, in addition to bioflavonoids. These compounds work synergistically to neutralize free radicals formed by UV exposure. In addition, Alpha Lipoic Acid can regenerate both vitamin E and C nutrients to extend their effectiveness.

The Ultimate Goal: Enhancing Cell Longevity
Understanding the molecular basis of cellular function provides insight into not only ingredient function and activity, but in the effective anti-aging treatment of your clients. Aging is a loss of equilibrium between the capability of a cell to maintain its repair potential and the frequency and intensity of the damages to which it is exposed. For the skin, the most exposed organ to environmental insults, free radicals generated by ultraviolet radiation and internal metabolism are considered to be the most important deleterious aging agents on cellular proteins, lipids, glycans, and DNA. Cell protecting anti-aging ingredients for now and into the near future therefore must:

  1. Contain natural cell free-radical scavengers or technologies focusing on active ingredients which, along with attacking free radicals directly, must also reinforce the natural cellular components and organelles that detoxify these free radicals
  2. Protect the organelles and structures of cellular proteins and lipids
  3. Affect the life span of the cell and improve stress resistance by controlling key metabolisms and cell-signaling pathways

Effective and active products, therefore, must highlight basic cell science as the backbone of new and effective ingredients and treatments.

Kimberly J. Heathman has been in the professional and retail skin care industry for more than 25 years, including extensive leadership experience in retail, cosmetics brand and product development, senior level project management with Nordstrom Inc., and such major cosmetic firms as the Estee Lauder Companies Inc. Heathman holds a B.S. in Chemistry and Biology; is a member of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists and The Biochemical Society; and is an educator and published author in Ingredient Chemistry and Skin Care Biochemistry. Heathman is the Executive Vice President-Director of Strategic Marketing and Business Development at GlyMed Plus / Advanced Aesthetics Inc. For more information, please visit www.glymedplus.com.

Related items

  • Dallas Based Entrepreneurs Launch Medical Hologram B+A and Marketing Assistant Serving the Aesthetic Community Dallas Based Entrepreneurs Launch Medical Hologram B+A and Marketing Assistant Serving the Aesthetic Community

    Aestheia Imaging, a hologram content management, and advertising subscription company introduced its disruptive technology at the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery last week at The Aesthetic Meeting in New Orleans. The company breaks the mold of in-practice marketing with the unveiling of XTHEIA; an interactive hologram display toting a Virtual Consult Assistant for medical office waiting rooms. Aestheia's launch poses a resolution to poor patient awareness; an underserved focal point of product education in the aesthetics industry.
    The company is led by Austin JM Podowski, CEO and accomplished Dallas Healthcare Business Tech executives Mike McDonald, President and Paul Herchman, Advisory Board Member. Well known Plastic Surgeon and photographer Dr. Barry DiBernardo of New Jersey Plastic Surgery leads the companies Medical Advisory Board and will continue to work to enhance upon the application. The company offers a connected holographic media platform to story map the patient journey to brand and product education. Through the research and development of Aestheia's Medical Advisory Group, the company will offer holographic before and afters to patients so they can see pre-operative and post-operative procedure outcomes in true 3D, not previously available in the space.


    "We are dedicated to providing novel and ground breaking product innovation for the entire Aesthetic Community," comments McDonald. The company today offers a fully-automated and comprehensive holographic playlist for physician waiting rooms tethered to a cloud-based solution developed by the management team.
    "We are changing the way medical companies and physicians communicate with their customers and patients. The ALEXA of Aesthetics is now in the room," states Podowski. The team has also designed a customer facing iPad Pro application that allows a physician to remote control the device offering an in-app camera for patient photos. Mr. Podowski later comments, "The response received at ASAPS The Aesthetic Meeting affirms that our vision and product meet a need and resuscitate a lost connection with the consumer."
    The management team is dedicated to further pioneering advancements in hologram, AI, and AR in the evolving medical practice of the 21st century. The company is finalizing a third-round capital raise and will begin placement of their technology throughout Plastic Surgery Offices in North America in July 2019. The technology will also be on display in direct to consumer retail kiosks throughout the United States later this year. To get a sneak peak of Aestheia, follow the team's development, or learn more about the technology, follow @aestheiaimaging or visit www.aestheiaimaging.com.
      www.aestheiaimaging.com

  • Micropigmentation Procedure October 2010
    By
    Micropigmentation Procedure October 2010

    Micropigmentation Procedure Helps Breast Cancer Survivors Regain Self-Esteem & Confidence!

    Cranberr facial mask

    Cranberr facial mask
    According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), it is estimated that in 2009 there were 192,370 new cases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed among women, and approximately 1,910 new cases in men. For the many men and women who have been, and will be diagnosed this year, the battle to get through treatment and surgery is only the beginning of the journey to survive. Although the feeling of survival is unsurpassed, the physical scars at times may leave some survivors anxious with their new appearance. Ruth Swissa has taken her passion and artistic expertise in the permanent makeup industry to provide areola pigmentation for breast cancer patients post reconstruction to help renew self-confidence and boost self-esteem.

    "Many of my patients have said that waking up every morning, and looking in the mirror is a constant reminder of their battle, which although comes with a sense of pride, it also at times causes insecurities because they don't feel like themselves," says Swissa.

    Micropigmentation is an alternative method of creating a realistic nipple and areola after a mastectomy, to achieve a more symmetrical shape and even coloring using artistic light and shade effects. Swissa works closely with her patients in order to achieve the desired coloring and size to create a natural looking effect. This procedure takes less than an hour and is usually painless.

    Ruth uses a customized medical tattooing technique for applying permanent makeup for areola pigmentation. This unique method proves to be more exact, very gentle, and less invasive than traditional cosmetic tattooing. The results look more natural and subtle in appearance.

  • Five Ways to Find Safe and Natural Relief from Osteoarthritis October 2010
    By
    Five Ways to Find Safe and Natural Relief from Osteoarthritis October 2010


    Five Ways to Find Safe and Natural Relief from Osteoarthritis

    by Deirdre Shevlin Bell

    Cranberr facial mask


    The search for safe and effective relief from osteoarthritis (OA), a condition that occurs when joint cartilage wears down over time, can feel like an uphill battle. Certain natural remedies can bring lasting relief from OA according to the Arthritis Research Council (ARC) study and other experts. That is good news, since the pain, stiffness, and loss of flexibility from arthritis makes it the nation's most common cause of disability.

    One massage, and call me in the morning
    Spa-lovers with osteoarthritis will be pleased to learn that all those massages that leave you feeling loose and limber are doing more than just helping you relax. According to a 2006 study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, Swedish massage improves flexibility, decreases pain, and increases range of motion in individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Low-impact exercise
    "When people start to hurt, they tend to cut back on exercise," notes Michele Olson, Ph.D., professor of exercise physiology at Auburn University Montgomery and Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine. But that is a mistake, as inactivity can make pain and stiffness even worse. Olson recommends Pilates and swimming or doing aqua-aerobics, but she emphasizes the importance of choosing gentle, weight-bearing exercise. Michael Murray, N.D. suggests that a person should find something they love, and find a way to continue doing it: If walking on concrete sidewalks is too hard on the joints, walk on the golf course.

    Spice rub
    Using a gel containing capsaicin, the active ingredient in chili, is very effective at providing temporary relief from osteoarthritis pain. Studies have found that capsaicin can deplete the substance that acts to transmit pain signals from nerve endings to the brain and cause inflammation in the joints.

    Healing herbs
    An ARC study evaluated several herbs and herbal combinations and found that one stood above the rest. Phytodolor, a branded combination of three herbs – aspen (Populus tremula), common ash bark (Franxinus excelsior), and golden rob herb (Solidago vigaurea) effectively manages the pain and inflammation associated with OA. Some studies have shown that aspen contains a substance that when ingested inhibits the production of certain prostaglandins in the nerves, resulting in pain relief. Common ash bark and golden rob herb also have pain-relieving properties, and common ash bark is an antioxidant – meaning it may reduce oxidative damage in the joint. The combination of the three herbs has been shown in animal studies to reduce inflammation. No major adverse effects have been reported, though some people do experience diarrhea, stomach upset, or skin reactions.

    The SAMe Game
    First discovered in 1952 and widely investigated for its usefulness in treating depression, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is now showing promise as a treatment for OA. SAMe is a chemical compound that occurs naturally in the body, where it contributes to the synthesis of hormones and neurotransmitters. Studies suggest that when taken as a supplement, SAMe reduces pain and also stimulates the synthesis of collagen and proteoglycans, which are the major components of joint cartilage. Adverse effects are infrequent and mild, but can include nausea, restlessness, headache, dry mouth, and stomach upset. People with depression should consult with a healthcare provider before taking SAMe, as some incidences of anxiety and mania have been reported.

    Copyright© HealthyLifestyles.com

  • The Impact of Psoriasis on Personal Relationships October 2010
    By
    The Impact of Psoriasis on Personal Relationships October 2010


    The Impact of Psoriasis on Personal Relationships Survey Fact Sheet

    This survey was created in partnership with the National Psoriasis Foundation and Galderma Laboratories, L.P.

    Within this issue, as well as our November and December 2010 issues, we will be printing important findings revealed from the recent survey, "The Impact of Psoriasis on Personal Relationships." This survey, sponsored by Galderma Laboratories, was distributed to the National Psoriasis Foundation membership database via Survey Monkey. The survey was completed by approx 1,520 people; statistics below represent the percentage of people who answered a specific question (not always all 1,520 respondents). Statistics are rounded to nearest percentage point and percentages may not add up to 100 percent depending on the structure of the question. Not every respondent answered every question.i Below is a list of findings relating to psoriasis and its impact of social relationships.

    Nearly 80 percent (78.7%) of question respondents feel that psoriasis has had a negative impact on their personal relationships.ii

    Social Relationships

    • When having a psoriasis flare-up, 63.3 percent of respondents are less likely to go out socially iii and 53.6 percent have declined social invitations or cancelled plans because of a flare-up.iv Nearly 70 percent (69.6%) feel that psoriasis has impacted their social relationships.v
    • When meeting someone new, 74.3 percent of question respondents worry that the person will notice their psoriasis,vi and 72.1 percent of respondents are concerned that people that notice will think of them less favorably.vii
    • When going out for social occasions, 79.5 percent of respondents usually only wear outfits that cover up
      their psoriasis.viii
  • Pomegranate the Ancient Red Goddess October 2010
    By
    Pomegranate the Ancient Red Goddess October 2010


    Pomegranate the Ancient Red Goddess!

    by Natalie Pergar

    Cranberr facial mask

    Known not only as part of the elite group of super fruits, the all mighty pomegranate, English word comes from the Latin words for apple; "pomum" (apple) and "granatus" (seeded), has been dated as far back as 1,000 BC and was introduced to North America by Spanish settlers in 1769. This red beauty represents global symbolism and history ranging from righteousness, prosperity, and fertility.

    With over 760 varieties of pomegranate it is one of the oldest known medicines to man. Ancient Greek healers would use pomegranate juice to manage health problems similar to arthritis, circulation problems, digestive disorders, and infections. And to add to the wonders of the pomegranate, the fruit was also involved in ancient beauty concoctions. Today with our growing beauty culture and desire to turn back the clock, we find ourselves revisiting what our ancient friends already knew with the help of modern science and research.

    Pomegranates are packed with phytonutrients, vitamin B, and an abundance of vitamin C. They contain red arils, tiny edible seeds that are loaded with juice and provide valuable fiber. They are delicious and fantastic to eat - though I would not recommend eating the white membrane that surrounds the arils as it is quite bitter and the consensus is that it is not recommended. And for those of us that count calories, a 1/2 cup of raw pomegranate has 80 calories and 0 grams of fat!

    According to the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), pomegranate fruit extract contains several polyphenols and anthocyanidins (pigment that gives certain fruits their dark red colors). Its antioxidant activity is higher than that of red wine and green tea and research suggests that pomegranate extract may have significant clinical benefits in decreasing risk for skin cancer.

    By taking pomegranate extract capsules, one could reduce or reverse the signs of aging by promoting cell turnover and creating new, healthy skin. But that is not all! Evidence shows that including it in your skin care regime can provide wonderful results too. Rich in ellagic acid to manage free radicals, pomegranate oil contains punicic acid, an omega 5 conjugated fatty acid effective in aiding cell regeneration and proliferation. Pomegranate also carries beneficial phytoestrogen and a rare plant-based source of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), an anti-carcinogen.

    So I salute you, oh red goddess of history. Bring me health and wellness with all your super fruit power!

    Pomegranate, Almond Oil, and Honey Mask


    ½ pomegranate
    2 tsp almond oil
    ½ tbsp organic honey

    Warm up the honey until it becomes liquid (not too hot!) by putting it in a small glass or metal bowl which is immersed in hot water. Peel the pomegranate half, cut the fruit in pieces, and put these in a bowl or food processor. Add the honey and almond oil. Blend it all into a smooth and uniform paste. Spread this gently and equally with your fingertips on your clean face and neck: keep the eye area clear. Now lie down, relax, and leave the mask on for 20 minutes. Then, wash it off with lukewarm water and end with a splash of cold water; pat your skin dry with a clean towel. Finally, apply a moisturizer, this way you "seal" your skin to keep the water inside. (For all skin types). *This fruit mask recipe peels your skin and we do not recommend using it on acne skin.

    Copyright ® 2009-2010 Natural – Homeremedies-For-Life

    Pomegranate Oat Bran Scrub

    2 ounces pomegranate juice
    2 ounces orange juice
    2 tbsp honey
    2 tbsp sea salt
    3 to 4 ounces oat bran

    1. In a container large enough to hold two cups, combine pomegranate and orange juices. To this add the honey and mix together well.
    2. Now add sea salt and oat bran. Mix together and allow the oat bran to soak up the liquids, about 10 to 20 minutes.
    3. Make sure to apply to a clean face. Probably the easiest way is to apply in the shower after you clean your face and allow it to set while you do other things. The steam from the shower helps allow the ingredients to penetrate your skin. Then, gently scrub off as you shower.

    Copyright ® eHow.com

Login to post comments

More in Wellness

Featured Company

  • LightStimLightStimDescription: Just like plants, our skin and other body tissues have the ability to absorb light and convert it into energy. While plants can safely absorb light from the sun, the sun emits harmful UV rays that can do more damage to our skin than good. LightStim use ...

Wellness

Next-Level Learning

  • Christine Valmy International School of Esthetics & CosmetologyChristine Valmy International School of...Description: Christine Valmy International School of Esthetics & Cosmetology offers a quality education in the beauty industry, based on the teachings of the Founder of Esthetics in the United States—Ms. Christine Valmy. Ms. Valmy opened her very first school ...