Vitamin A is the name of a group of fat-soluble molecules referred to as retinoids. Retinoids belong to the terpene family and are sourced from both flora (plants) and fauna (animal sources). Terpenes occur in aromatic substances and spice plants, cellular structuring substances, hormones, and vitamins.1 Their molecular structures include retinol, retinaldehyde, retinoic acid. Retinoic acid shows the most biological activity.2 Retinoic acid modulates gene…
Clinical research is always the best place to start when looking for a factual answer. According to various studies, the real answer is (drum roll, please) maybe. The studies that exist are conflicting and not well documented, which begs a decision be made outside of the research. {mprestriction ids="3,4,26,18,6,7,8,9,14,18"} SUN EXPOSURE Exposing acne-prone skin to too much sun will eventually backfire, causing more problems in…
Getting a pimple and not popping it right away has got to be one of the biggest tests of self-discipline for a client. Two major reasons why clients should not pop their own pimples is that it creates post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation –a forever pimple and secondly because it can create even more pimples. POST-INFLAMMATORY PIGMENTATION Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation is a pigmentation type that forms discoloration on the…
In the search for the most effective first step in creating healthy, radiant skin, there has been micellar cleansing, oil cleansing, double cleansing, and dry cleansing, each taking their turn in the spotlight. Whichever method is used, it is important to cleanse every morning and every night to remove makeup, pollution, and other environmental stressors leaving their mark on skin. With this in mind, is…
Often, clients ask whether it best to apply a moisturizer first and follow with sunscreen or use a two-in-one product combining moisturizer with sun protection. The short answer is that it depends on the product’s formulation and quality. The first consideration is the choice of sunscreen because some are not safe to be used daily. SUNSCREEN Chemical sunscreens such as avobenzone, benzophenone, benzophenone-3, oxybenzone, cylcopentasiloxane …

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Lauren Farmer