An alpha hydroxy acid, mandelic acid is naturally-derived from bitter almonds. It is commonly used in skin care for its exfoliating properties. This oil-soluble acid works in a variety of capacities, including boosting cell turnover, stimulating collagen production, sloughing off dead skin cells, and brightening discoloration and hyperpigmentation. Mandelic acid is particularly gentle, making it great for almost all skin types.
From the morus alba tree, mulberry is a fruit that is rich in antioxidants. Mulberries also contain vitamins A, C, and E, which also help slow signs of aging. This fruit is commonly used in skin brightening products because of its ability to regulate melanin synthesis, improving skin tone, lightening skin, and reducing dark spots.
Magnesium oxide, sometimes called magnesia or magnesium alba, is a white powder naturally found in rock and mineral deposits. It is often used as an opacifying agent in skin care products, meaning it is used to help hide discoloration, lemishes, and so forth.